When Estonia gained independence through the Soviet Union in 1991, the country embarked on a series of fast-track reforms to modernize the economy. through the start, which took a digital approach.

“Estonia was a relatively poor country,” Kaljulaid said. “Our public sector, our government in addition to also our civil servants wanted to offer our people not bad quality services. We did which straight away digitally because which was simply cheaper, easy.”

A key initiative commenced in education as Estonia pledged to put computers in every classroom in addition to also by 2000, every school from the country was online. The government also offered free computer training to 10 percent of the adult population. The effort helped raise the percentage of Estonians who use the internet through 29 percent in 2000 to 91 percent in 2016.

In 2002, Estonia launched a high-tech national ID system. Physical ID cards are paired with digital signatures which Estonians use to pay taxes, vote, do online banking in addition to also access their health care records.